include cancers of the bladder, kidney, prostate and testicles. Often, surgery is the primary treatment for all urologic cancers.
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. If prostate cancer is detected early, when it is still confined to the prostate one has a better chance of successful treatment with minimal or short-term side effects.
The most common adult kidney cancer is renal cell carcinoma, which forms in the lining of small tubes in the kidney.
Testicular cancer is highly treatable and curable if detected early.. Early diagnosis and treatment are important for men of all ages. Most men can detect their own testicular cancers. Doctors generally examine the testicles during routine physical exams.
More than 90 percent of bladder cancers begin in the transitional cells. This type of bladder cancer is called transitional cell carcinoma. When bladder cancer spreads outside the bladder, cancer cells are often found in nearby lymph nodes. If the cancer has reached these nodes, cancer cells may have spread to other lymph nodes or other organs, such as the lungs, liver or bones.
Ovarian cancer begins in a woman's ovaries. They are part of a woman's reproductive system. There are two types of ovarian cancer - Epithelial carcinoma that begins in cells on the outer surface of the ovary or the 'epithelium'. Another is Germ cell tumor that develops in the egg-producing cells of the ovaries, and is very uncommon. The third is Sex-cord stromal cell tumor, which is a rare form of ovarian cancer and develops in the 'connective tissue' cells that produce female hormones hold the ovaries together.
It also includes endometrial cancer. The most frequent symptoms are persistent pelvic and abdominal pain, increased abdominal size / continuous bloating, change in bowel habits, extreme tiredness, back pain, abnormal bleeding:bleeding after the menopause, bleeding between periods, heavier periods than normal; abnormal discharge.
Cervical cancer is cancer of the cervix (also known as the neck of the womb) which connects a woman's womb and her vagina.It is a largely preventable disease.The earlier cervical cancer is diagnosed, the better the outcome will be, so it is important to know the signs and symptoms.Apart from the symptoms which are common for uterine cancer, painful sex and bleeding after sex are signs for cervical cancer.
The term vulva refers to the external sex genital organs of a woman.The signs of cancer of the vulva can include a lasting itch, pain or soreness, thickened, raised, red, white or dark patches on the skin of the vulva, an open sore or growth visible on the skin, burning pain when one passes urine, vaginal discharge or bleeding, a mole on the vulva that changes shape or colour and a lump or swelling in the vulva.
Vaginal cancer is a very rare disease and is most commonly diagnosed in women over 60 years of age and is extremely rare in women under 40.Changes to the cells in the lining of the vagina called Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (VAIN) can mean one is more at risk of getting vaginal cancer. The early signs and symptoms of vaginal cancer include bleeding when one is not having a period or bleeding after the menopause. This is themost common symptom. One may have bleeding after sex.Vaginal discharge that smells or is blood stained is another symptom. There is a pain during sexual intercourse, a growth in the vagina and a continuous vaginal itch.